Fighter Messerschmitt Bf-110 appeared in the mid 30s of last century, but the concept of multi-seat heavy fighter escort, which has long range has been formulated as far back as the First World War. Then the opposing sides felt the need for the fighter who would be able to accompany bombers in rear of the enemy. Also, this plane was to carry out the task of patrolling the barrier on the distant approaches to their databases. However, the technical possibilities of that time were not allowed to create such a plane and interest in the newly emerged only after 1933, when the aggressive policy of Germany has given new impetus to long-range fighter. Work on the creation of such a fighter began in 1934.
Already in 1938 the company Messerschmitt was designed and built fighter escort and air defense. A prototype fighter Me-110 was tested in late 1938 and the spring of 1939 went into the series. During the war the aircraft was assigned the task of attack aircraft, bombers, reconnaissance, and therefore the aircraft is constantly subjected to modernization. All modifications differ mainly layout of booking and weapons, as well as the possibility of installing additional beams for special equipment, fixtures bombs and fuel tanks.
Fighter Me-110 twin-engine is a double cantilever all-metal monoplane with low wing, retractable landing gear and spaced fins. The wing has a trapezoidal shape with slightly rounded edges. Single-spar wing metal construction with a smooth running casing, made of duralumin sheet. Longitudinal beam type, located perpendicular to the axis of the aircraft. The shelves are made of steel spar linings and parts alternating sections along the span. Between the fuselage and motor gondolas are additional power bar - the tail and nose. Together they form a spar with 2 compartments on each side of the aircraft to accommodate the fuel tanks.
The fuselage of the aircraft is a monocoque tselnodyuralyuminievy oval cross section. The maximum width of the fuselage in the location of the cockpit is 0.94 meters. Removable short nose attached to it at four points through the fuselage is a farm, which is a continuation of the wing spar. Cab fighter locked sliding plexiglass canopy. Side and front windows are flat. To fire the machine gun from the rear of the flashlight hand-radio operator raised. Lantern pilot in the air can be opened only in case of emergency.
The aircraft design was originally designed for mass production, the technology is simple fighter. In order to expedite the process of production, its units are composed of simple sub-assemblies and parts. In its designs are widely used standard and normal parts, especially in groups of control and rotor (pipeline connectors, plugs, eyelets, etc.).
On a plane of Me-110S was equipped with two 12-cylinder inverted V-shaped liquid-cooled, the company "Daimler-Benz» DB-601A. Their take-off power was 1175 HP at 2500 rev / min. rated power - 1050 hp at 2400 rev / min at an altitude of 4100 meters.Engines running on fuel with an octane number 87 (on the German scale). Later versions of the plane F, G and H, used motors 605V DB-1, which has a capacity of 1475 hp for takeoff and 1355 hp at an altitude of 5700 meters. The maximum speed of the aircraft reached 560 km / h. Motor unit, due to the rear of the spar was deeply immersed in the wing, which has greatly shortened engine nacelles to improve peripheral vision pilot.
Fuel capacity fighters housed in 4 tanks in placed in the wing between the fuselage and engine nacelles. Their total capacity was 1270 liters. Two main tank with a capacity of 375 liters were installed in front of the spar, two reserve tanks of 270 liters - behind. Each tank was equipped with elektrobenzopompoy mounted at the top of the tank.Elektrobenzopompy reserve tanks are designed for pumping fuel into the main tank, while the main tank fuel pump fed fuel to the engine for flights above 5,000 meters. Fuel gauge in the cockpit had a common index for all tanks. Accidental discharge of fuel was not provided.
Armament consisted of two fighter aircraft cannon MG-FF 20mm guns and four MG-17 7.92 mm, which were installed in the fuselage nose. To protect the rear hemisphere in the cab was installed a hand gun MG-15 7.92 mm. Access to fixed machine guns carried by sliding the top half forward of the forward fuselage. The guns were mounted on a gun carriage, accessed through easily removable sunroof, placed under the fuselage.
Supply of ammunition to the front guns is 4,000 units (1,000 in the trunk), ammo machine gun to the back - 750. Ammo guns - to 360 shots. Meals front machine guns was a tape, while the rear had a gun supply stores, and change was spent shopping gunner-radio operator. Still had the gun collimator sight, fire control has been concentrated in the pilot.Descent electric, electro-charge.
Placement and design of small arms and cannon armament provide convenience fighting in the air crew and maintenance personnel work. The approach to guns and machine guns, sights and all the other units of the weapons system was good. Charging and discharging of weapons, as well as installation and removal of ammunition boxes did not present any difficulties.
The use and handling
Me-110 fighter has good handling, stability and maneuverability. It was possible a long flight with complete abandonment pilot control. By airplane pilot technique was quite accessible and easy for the pilots of average skill. Fighter pilot allowed to fly on one engine running, with the propeller blades of a stopped motor flyugirovalis.
For the first time the aircraft was used by the Germans during their invasion of Poland in September 1939. Later it was used extensively during the campaign against Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland, France, Great Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia. If in the initial stages of World War II airplane copes with the task of fighting with enemy fighters (weaker), the very first meeting with the British "Spitfire" during the "Battle of Britain" showed that the Me-110 is unable to maintain equal maneuver battle with a much more agile single-engine fighters the British. At this point the aircraft is increasingly used to strike ground targets and as a scout. Me-110 was used in battles in North Africa, and with the support of insurgents in Iraq in May 1941. It is at its May 10, 1941 in the UK flew Rudolf Hess. In addition, this fighter was supplied the Allies in Germany: Italy, Hungary and Romania.
In March 1940, among other samples of German aircraft in the Soviet Union was delivered 5 fighters Messerschmitt Bf-110. All of them have been thoroughly tested in the NII VVS.One of them at the beginning of the war operated in 158 AD IAP. After the outbreak of World War II using data from the German fighter planes and other aircraft had formed a special squadron to conduct covert operations under the command of Major General V.Khomiakov. The structure includes three squadrons of fighter Me-110. In 1942, a captured Messerschmitt Bf-110 was used for long range reconnaissance regiment of 750 ADD (as long as was brought down by their own anti-aircraft gunners).
On the Soviet-German front fighter used is sufficiently small. Most often it is performed here as a fighter-bomber. In the struggle with Soviet fighters could accompany him to success only in case of surprise attack. In the event that the Me-110 was forced to maneuver battle, he immediately lost even obsolete fighter types. The case when the summer of 1941 in the Soviet pilot Taganrog on I-15 shot down a Messerschmitt fighter once 3 Bf-110. As at the front appeared an increasing number of Yak-1 and-3 loss LaGG Me-110 significantly increased, resulting in a job they had to fly under the guise of single-engine Me-109. In the summer of 1943 all the surviving fighter Me-110 had been withdrawn from the Eastern Front and transferred to the Air Command "Reich" (defense of Germany). In the final stage of the war, the aircraft became the main German night fighter.
Since the beginning of the British bomber raids on industrial targets in Germany, the Me-110 has found itself as a night fighter. The most widely as a fighter defense got the version with the index of G. The car has received more powerful engines 605V DB-1, new screws with larger blades, strengthened landing gear and an increased area of the vertical stabilizer. In versions of G-1 and G-3 aircraft was used as a day fighter, a version of G-4, as a night fighter radar.
Me-110G is visible on the nose radar installation
Armament aircraft was strengthened. Instead of MG FF cannons were installed new MG 151 with a total reserve of 650 rounds. Also to strengthen the protection of the rear hemisphere only machine gun MG 15 was replaced by a paired machine gun MG-81Z having ammunition 800 rounds of ammunition. Me-110 aircraft G4 got more sophisticated electronics. In addition to the usual radio, they were equipped with identities "friend or foe» FuG 25 and the equipment for a "blind" landing. From April 1943 they were installed transmitters FuG 16 ZY, who could successfully deal with radio interference, providing a seamless communication system, night fighter with ground-based targeting "Himmelbett."
In the role of night fighter aircraft Messerschmitt Bf-110 literally "found himself" as weight, size, and relatively weak mobility did not play a decisive role here. By the beginning of 1944 the night of the air defense of Germany reached its peak efficiency, at this point in their arms were about 320 radar night fighter Me-110, representing about 60% of the total number of German night fighters. All in all, for all time to the production plants in March 1945 Germany made heavy twin-engined fighter 6050 Me-110.
Author Sergey Yuverev