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James_White #1 Posted 14 October 2011 - 01:48 PM

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The Ilyushin Il-2 (Cyrillic Илью́шин Ил-2) was a ground-attack aircraft (Shturmovik) in the Second World War, produced by the Soviet Union in very large numbers.36,000 Shturmoviks were built. The Il-2 left service in 1955 , making it the single most produced military aircraft design in all of aviation history, as well as one of the most produced piloted aircraft in history along with the American postwar civilan Cessna 172 and the Soviets' own Polikarpov Po-2(U-2). It is regarded as the best ground attack aircraft of World War II.
Posted Image

To Il-2 pilots, the aircraft was simply the diminutive "Ilyusha". To the soldiers on the ground, it was the "Hunchback", the "Flying Tank" or the "Flying Infantryman". Its postwar NATO reporting name was "Bark". German soldiers called it Der Schwartz Tod; The Black Death.
Luftwaffe pilots called it Eiserner Gustav (Iron Gustav)[24] or the Zementbomber (Concrete bomber).The Finnish nickname maatalouskone ("agricultural machine" or "tractor") derived from a word play with maataistelukone (ground attack aircraft, literally "ground combat aircraft" where kone, literally "machine", in turn is shortened from lentokone, aircraft, literally "flying machine")
Considered one of the most important Soviet aircraft of World War 2, the Ilyushin Il 2 Shturmovik was loved by its country and feared by the enemy. Stalin said of the Il-2 that it was “as essential to the Red Army as bread and water” and demanded prompt and efficient production from factory officials.
Uniquely for a World War II attack aircraft, and similarly to the forward fuselage design of the World War I-era Imperial German Junkers J.I armored, all-metal sesquiplane, the Il-2's armor was designed as a load-bearing part of the Ilyushin's monocoque structure, thus saving considerable weight.

This armour plus its speedy liquid cooled engine meant that it could fly through withering ground fire and make it home in one piece. The Il-2 made short work of German tanks, especially with its small cassette cumulative anti-tank bombs and air-to-ground rockets (the first ever for any air force) .
Tactics improved as Soviet aircrew became used to the Il-2's strengths. Instead of a low horizontal straight approach at 50 metres altitude, the target was usually kept to the pilot's left and a turn and shallow dive of 30 degrees was utilized, using an echeloned assault by four to 12 aircraft at a time. Although the Il-2's RS-82 and RS-132 rockets could destroy armored vehicles with a single hit, they were so inaccurate that experienced Il-2 pilots mainly utilized the cannon. Another potent weapon of the Il-2s was the PTAB shaped charge bomblets (protivotankovaya aviabomba, "anti-tank aviation bomb"). They were designated PTAB-2.5-1.5, as they had the size of a 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) bomb, but weighed only 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) due to the empty space in the shaped charge. Up to 192 were carried in four external dispensers (cluster bombs) or up to 220 in the internal weapon bays. The HEAT charge could easily penetrate the relatively thin upper armor of all heavy German tanks. PTABs were first used in large scale in the Battle of Kursk.
Thereafter, the Il-2 was widely deployed on the Eastern Front. The aircraft could fly in low light conditions and carried weaponry capable of defeating the thick armor of the Panther and Tiger I tanks. They also proved capable of defending themselves against enemy fighters, claiming an occasional Messerschmitt Bf 109.

Posted Image

The Sturmovik nevertheless suffered heavy losses: the Luftwaffe command claimed 6,900 Il-2s in 1943 and 7,300 in 1944. Although these figures were exaggerated by a factor of between 2 to 2.2, the actual losses were substantial. In 1943, one loss corresponded to 26 Sturmovik sorties. About half of those lost were shot down by fighters, the rest falling to anti-aircraft fire.[19]
The main problem with the Il-2 was the inaccuracy of its attacks. Towards the end of war the Soviets were able to concentrate massive numbers of Shturmoviks to support their main offensives. However, particularly against dug-in and armored targets, the effect was often more psychological than actual physical destruction of targets.
The heavy armor of the Il-2 also meant that it would typically carry only comparatively light bomb-loads, which together with the poor accuracy of its attacks made it a far less deadly attack aircraft than the contemporary Allied fighter-bombers such as the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and Hawker Typhoon. The rocket projectiles especially were not effective, even the larger RS-132 (of which four were carried) having a warhead with only 0.9 kg (2.0 lb) of explosives, which compared poorly with the P-47's typical load of 10 5 inches (13 cm) HVARs each with 21 kg (46 lb) warhead, or the 8 to 12 "60 lb" (27 kg) warhead RP-3 rockets of the Hawker Typhoon. Likewise the Shturmovik's bombs were usually only 50 kg (rarely 100 kg), too small to compensate for the typically wide variation from target point.

To compensate for the poor accuracy of the Il-2's bombsight, in 1943 the Soviet Command decided to use shaped-charge armor-piercing projectiles against enemy armored vehicles, and the PTAB-2.5-1.5 SCAP aircraft bomb was put into production. These small-calibre bombs were loaded directly into the bomb bays and were dropped onto enemy vehicles from altitudes up to 100 meters (328 ft). As each Il-2 could carry up to 192 bombs, a fire carpet 70 meters (229 ft.) long and 15 meters (49 ft) wide covered the enemy tanks, giving a high "kill" probability.[19] Pilots of 291st ShAP were the first to use the PTAB-2.5-1.5 bombs. During one sortie on 5 June 1943, six attack aircraft led by Lt. Col. A. Vitrook destroyed 15 enemy tanks in one attack, and during five days of the enemy advance the 291st Division destroyed or damaged 422 enemy tanks.
Thanks to the heavy armor protection, an Il-2 could take a great deal of punishment and proved difficult for both ground and aircraft fire to shoot down. One Il-2 in particular was reported to have returned safely to base despite receiving more than 600 direct hits and having all its control surfaces completely shredded as well as numerous holes in its main armor and other structural damage. Some enemy pilots favored aiming down into the cockpit and wing roots in diving attacks on the slow, low-flying Il-2 formations.Several Luftwaffe aces claimed to attack while climbing from behind, out of view of the rear gunner, aiming for the Il-2's non-retractable oil cooler. This has been disputed by some Il-2 pilots in postwar interviews, since Il-2s typically flew very close to the ground (cruise altitudes below 50 m (160 ft) were common) and the radiator protruded a mere 10 cm (4 in) from the aircraft.
A major threat to the Il-2 was German ground fire. In postwar interviews, Il-2 pilots reported 20 mm (0.79 in) and 37 mm (1.46 in) artillery as the primary threat. While the fabled 88 mm (3.46 in) calibre gun was formidable, low-flying Il-2s presented too fast-moving a target for the 88's relatively low rate of fire, and while occasional hits were scored Soviet pilots apparently did not treat the 88 with the same respect as high-altitude Western heavy bomber crews. Similarly the attempts in Finland during summer '44 to augment the small numbers of 20/40mm AA in the field army by heavier 76mm guns drawn from homeland defence proved also relatively ineffective and few Il-2s were downed despite attempting different tactics with time-fuzed fragmentation, contact-fuzed, and shrapnel ammunition: the heavy guns simply lacked the reaction times to take advantage of the brief firing opportunities presented by the low-altitude Il-2 attacks. Single-barrel 20mm guns were also found somewhat inadequate due to limited firepower: one or two shells were often not enough to destroy the Il-2, and unless the Il-2 was attacking the gun itself, thus presenting effectively a stationary target, scoring more hits during a firing opportunity was rare. However, a single hit from a 40mm AA gun was usually enough to bring down an Il-2. Soviet anti-aircraft artillery also frequently mistook it for German aircraft, often with lethal consequences.

Posted Image

The armored tub, ranging from 5–12 mm (0.2-0.5 in) in thickness and enveloping the engine and the cockpit, could deflect all small arms fire and glancing blows from larger-caliber ammunition. There are reports of the armored windscreen surviving direct hits from 20 mm (0.79 in) rounds. Unfortunately, the rear gunners did not have the benefit of all-around armor protection, especially from the rear and to the sides and suffered about four times more casualties than the pilots. Added casualties resulted from the Soviet policy of not returning home with unused ammunition which typically resulted in repeated passes on the target.
Heavy losses to enemy fighters forced the addition of a rear gunner; early IL-2s were field modified by cutting a hole in the fuselage behind the cockpit for a gunner sitting on a canvas sling armed with a 12.7 mm UBT machine gun in an improvised mounting. The semi-turret gun mount allowed the machine gun to be fired at angles of up to 35° upwards, 35° to starboard and 15° to port. Tests showed that maximum speed decreased by between 10 and 20 km/h (6.2–12.4 mph) and that the two-seater was more difficult to handle. At the beginning of March 1942, a production two-seat Il-2 with the new gunner's cockpit began manufacturer tests. The second cockpit and armament increased all-up weight by 170 kg (374 lb) so the flaps were allowed to be deployed at an angle of 17° to avoid an overly long takeoff run. The new variant had a lengthened fuselage compartment with an extended canopy offering some protection from the elements. Unlike the well-armoured cockpit of the pilot compartment with steel plating up to 12 mm (0.47 in) thick behind, beneath and on both sides as well as up to 65mm thick glass sections, the rear gunner was provided with 6 mm (.23 in) thick armour, only effective against rifle-calibre rounds.


To improve performance, the Mikulin Design Bureau started work on an uprated AM-38 engine. The new engines produced 1,700 hp at takeoff and 1,500 hp at 750 meters. They gave an improved takeoff and low-altitude performance. On 30 October 1942, production Il-2s powered by AM38s were used on the Central front for the first time when they successfully attacked Smolensk airfield occupied by Germans. The Shturmovik rear guns proved to be effective against hostile fighters, and during the service trials alone, gunners shot down seven Bf 109s and repulsed many attacks. In January 1943 two-seat attack aircraft powered by uprated AM-38F engines (Forseerovannyy - uprated) began to arrive at front line units.


Nonetheless, the death rate among the air gunners remained exceptionally high and not until late models produced after 1944, did the 13 mm (.5 in) rear plate of the armour shell get moved rearwards into the (wooden) rear fuselage to allow a gunner to sit behind the fuel tank. The armour did not extend to the rear or below although side armour panels were riveted to the rear armour plate to protect the ammunition tank for the UBT machine gun, providing some measure of protection. The modifications including adding the rear gunner and gun had added weight behind the cg, resulting in "marginal" stability and handling characteristics that were "barely acceptable". This was the reason for the swept back outer wings in later Il-2s.


Air-to-air combat

Due to shortage of fighters, in 1941–1942, Il-2s were occasionally used as fighters. While outclassed by dedicated fighters like the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190, in dogfights, the Il-2 could take on other Luftwaffe aircraft with some success. German front line units equipped with the Henschel Hs 126 suffered most of all from the ravages of Il-2s. Il-2 pilots also often attacked close formations of Junkers Ju 87s, as the 7.92 mm machine guns of the Stukas were ineffective defensively against the heavily armoured Shturmoviks. In the winter of 1941–1942, Il-2s were used against Luftwaffe transport aircraft, and became the most dangerous opponent of the Junkers Ju-52/3m. Pilots of 33rd GvShAP were the most successful in these operations, but other successful units were those operating near Stalingrad. Their targets were not only Ju 52s but also Heinkel He 111 and Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor bombers, delivering supplies to the besieged German troops.
Il-2 over Berlin, 1945
Posted Image

While the Il-2 was a deadly air-to-ground weapon, and even a fairly effective interceptor against slow bombers and transport aircraft, heavy losses resulted from its vulnerability to fighter attack. Losses were very high, the highest of all types of Soviet aircraft. Sturmovik losses (including Il-10 type), in 1941-1945, were of 10,762 aircraft (533 in 1941, 1,676 in 1942, 3,515 in 1943, 3,347 in 1944 and 1,691 in 1945).The main defensive tactic was flying low and power down as the fighters closed in to let the fighter overshoot and fly into the IL-2's firing range.
Source:
http://en.wikipedia....i/Ilyushin_Il-2
http://www.world-war...Shturmovik.html

jarmenkell #2 Posted 19 October 2011 - 11:25 AM

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in the game, i am guessing the rear gun is automatic with skill set to 100%?

iGasmask #3 Posted 20 October 2011 - 06:34 AM

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Impressive post, very informative. I'd love to fly this thing.

galiats #4 Posted 23 April 2012 - 08:22 AM

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i would love to use it as a fighter.  :Smile_veryhappy:

Twe3k #5 Posted 10 May 2012 - 06:26 AM

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She was a sky-tank, but she got her done :)

firefighter_01 #6 Posted 18 May 2012 - 10:44 AM

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The Ilyushin Il-2 (Cyrillic Илью́шин Ил-2) was a ground-attack aircraft(Shturmovik) in the Second World War, produced by the Soviet Union in very large numbers. In combination with its successor, the Ilyushin Il-10, a total of 42,330 were built, making it the single most produced military aircraft design in all of aviation history, as well as one of the most produced piloted aircraft in history along with the American postwar civilian Cessna 172 and the SovietPolikarpov Po-2. It is regarded as the best ground attack aircraft of World War II. It was a prominent aircraft for tank killing with its accuracy in dive bombingand its guns being able to penetrate tanks' thin back armor.

To Il-2 pilots, the aircraft was simply the diminutive "Ilyusha". To the soldiers on the ground, it was the "Hunchback", the "Flying Tank" or the "Flying Infantryman". Its postwar NATO reporting name was "Bark". The Il-2 aircraft played a crucial role on the Eastern Front. Joseph Stalin paid the Il-2 a great tribute in his own inimitable manner: when a particular production factory fell behind on its deliveries, Stalin sent an angrily-worded cable to the factory manager, stating "They are as essential to the Red Army as air and bread."


wikipedia


firefighter_01 #7 Posted 18 May 2012 - 10:48 AM

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http://www.airpages.ru/dc/il2_4.jpg

firefighter_01 #8 Posted 18 May 2012 - 10:49 AM

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http://war.by-airfor.../ilyushin19.jpg

Stonewall72 #9 Posted 29 May 2012 - 09:45 PM

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Was like the A-10 Warthog of WWII! ;)

Altitude, speed, and positioning are your greatest assets in the skies...www.checksixgaming.com

harakiri87 #10 Posted 08 June 2012 - 06:29 PM

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going to be one of my fighters in game :D


Beta Tester on the EU server, but active on the NA Forum :D


Woods98 #11 Posted 11 June 2012 - 06:09 PM

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Hi!

Maksim56 #12 Posted 13 June 2012 - 02:35 PM

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:Smile_great:

TikiTaki #13 Posted 10 August 2012 - 03:28 PM

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Famous plane=)the best ground-attack aircraft in 2nd World War

Edited by TikiTaki, 10 August 2012 - 03:28 PM.


GvShAP #14 Posted 12 August 2012 - 05:35 AM

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The FAB-100 was not so efficient against heavy armour targets,while BRS-82 and BRS-132 do well.These two kinds of rocket were designed to against armour targets,one hit one kill,if you can hit...
The main shortcoming is its poor maneuverability,its turn time makes it impossible to escape from fighters' attack(although fighters without guns more than .50 caliber can't make effective damage to it),but on the other hand makes it a stable gun platform.Anyhow,the best Close Air Support plane in WWII.

DestroyerOfOrphansDreams #15 Posted 29 August 2012 - 07:44 PM

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View Postfirefighter_01, on 18 May 2012 - 10:49 AM, said:


Says "Avengers" on the side of the plane.

war_Partisan #16 Posted 07 September 2012 - 06:49 PM

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View PostJames_White, on 14 October 2011 - 01:48 PM, said:

The Ilyushin Il-2 (Cyrillic Илью́шин Ил-2) was a ground-attack aircraft (Shturmovik) in the Second World War, produced by the Soviet Union in very large numbers.36,000 Shturmoviks were built. The Il-2 left service in 1955 , making it the single most produced military aircraft design in all of aviation history, as well as one of the most produced piloted aircraft in history along with the American postwar civilan Cessna 172 and the Soviets' own Polikarpov Po-2(U-2). It is regarded as the best ground attack aircraft of World War II.
Posted Image

To Il-2 pilots, the aircraft was simply the diminutive "Ilyusha". To the soldiers on the ground, it was the "Hunchback", the "Flying Tank" or the "Flying Infantryman". Its postwar NATO reporting name was "Bark". German soldiers called it Der Schwartz Tod; The Black Death.
Luftwaffe pilots called it Eiserner Gustav (Iron Gustav)[24] or the Zementbomber (Concrete bomber).The Finnish nickname maatalouskone ("agricultural machine" or "tractor") derived from a word play with maataistelukone (ground attack aircraft, literally "ground combat aircraft" where kone, literally "machine", in turn is shortened from lentokone, aircraft, literally "flying machine")
Considered one of the most important Soviet aircraft of World War 2, the Ilyushin Il 2 Shturmovik was loved by its country and feared by the enemy. Stalin said of the Il-2 that it was “as essential to the Red Army as bread and water” and demanded prompt and efficient production from factory officials.
Uniquely for a World War II attack aircraft, and similarly to the forward fuselage design of the World War I-era Imperial German Junkers J.I armored, all-metal sesquiplane, the Il-2's armor was designed as a load-bearing part of the Ilyushin's monocoque structure, thus saving considerable weight.

This armour plus its speedy liquid cooled engine meant that it could fly through withering ground fire and make it home in one piece. The Il-2 made short work of German tanks, especially with its small cassette cumulative anti-tank bombs and air-to-ground rockets (the first ever for any air force) .
Tactics improved as Soviet aircrew became used to the Il-2's strengths. Instead of a low horizontal straight approach at 50 metres altitude, the target was usually kept to the pilot's left and a turn and shallow dive of 30 degrees was utilized, using an echeloned assault by four to 12 aircraft at a time. Although the Il-2's RS-82 and RS-132 rockets could destroy armored vehicles with a single hit, they were so inaccurate that experienced Il-2 pilots mainly utilized the cannon. Another potent weapon of the Il-2s was the PTAB shaped charge bomblets (protivotankovaya aviabomba, "anti-tank aviation bomb"). They were designated PTAB-2.5-1.5, as they had the size of a 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) bomb, but weighed only 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) due to the empty space in the shaped charge. Up to 192 were carried in four external dispensers (cluster bombs) or up to 220 in the internal weapon bays. The HEAT charge could easily penetrate the relatively thin upper armor of all heavy German tanks. PTABs were first used in large scale in the Battle of Kursk.
Thereafter, the Il-2 was widely deployed on the Eastern Front. The aircraft could fly in low light conditions and carried weaponry capable of defeating the thick armor of the Panther and Tiger I tanks. They also proved capable of defending themselves against enemy fighters, claiming an occasional Messerschmitt Bf 109.

Posted Image

The Sturmovik nevertheless suffered heavy losses: the Luftwaffe command claimed 6,900 Il-2s in 1943 and 7,300 in 1944. Although these figures were exaggerated by a factor of between 2 to 2.2, the actual losses were substantial. In 1943, one loss corresponded to 26 Sturmovik sorties. About half of those lost were shot down by fighters, the rest falling to anti-aircraft fire.[19]
The main problem with the Il-2 was the inaccuracy of its attacks. Towards the end of war the Soviets were able to concentrate massive numbers of Shturmoviks to support their main offensives. However, particularly against dug-in and armored targets, the effect was often more psychological than actual physical destruction of targets.
The heavy armor of the Il-2 also meant that it would typically carry only comparatively light bomb-loads, which together with the poor accuracy of its attacks made it a far less deadly attack aircraft than the contemporary Allied fighter-bombers such as the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and Hawker Typhoon. The rocket projectiles especially were not effective, even the larger RS-132 (of which four were carried) having a warhead with only 0.9 kg (2.0 lb) of explosives, which compared poorly with the P-47's typical load of 10 5 inches (13 cm) HVARs each with 21 kg (46 lb) warhead, or the 8 to 12 "60 lb" (27 kg) warhead RP-3 rockets of the Hawker Typhoon. Likewise the Shturmovik's bombs were usually only 50 kg (rarely 100 kg), too small to compensate for the typically wide variation from target point.

To compensate for the poor accuracy of the Il-2's bombsight, in 1943 the Soviet Command decided to use shaped-charge armor-piercing projectiles against enemy armored vehicles, and the PTAB-2.5-1.5 SCAP aircraft bomb was put into production. These small-calibre bombs were loaded directly into the bomb bays and were dropped onto enemy vehicles from altitudes up to 100 meters (328 ft). As each Il-2 could carry up to 192 bombs, a fire carpet 70 meters (229 ft.) long and 15 meters (49 ft) wide covered the enemy tanks, giving a high "kill" probability.[19] Pilots of 291st ShAP were the first to use the PTAB-2.5-1.5 bombs. During one sortie on 5 June 1943, six attack aircraft led by Lt. Col. A. Vitrook destroyed 15 enemy tanks in one attack, and during five days of the enemy advance the 291st Division destroyed or damaged 422 enemy tanks.
Thanks to the heavy armor protection, an Il-2 could take a great deal of punishment and proved difficult for both ground and aircraft fire to shoot down. One Il-2 in particular was reported to have returned safely to base despite receiving more than 600 direct hits and having all its control surfaces completely shredded as well as numerous holes in its main armor and other structural damage. Some enemy pilots favored aiming down into the cockpit and wing roots in diving attacks on the slow, low-flying Il-2 formations.Several Luftwaffe aces claimed to attack while climbing from behind, out of view of the rear gunner, aiming for the Il-2's non-retractable oil cooler. This has been disputed by some Il-2 pilots in postwar interviews, since Il-2s typically flew very close to the ground (cruise altitudes below 50 m (160 ft) were common) and the radiator protruded a mere 10 cm (4 in) from the aircraft.
A major threat to the Il-2 was German ground fire. In postwar interviews, Il-2 pilots reported 20 mm (0.79 in) and 37 mm (1.46 in) artillery as the primary threat. While the fabled 88 mm (3.46 in) calibre gun was formidable, low-flying Il-2s presented too fast-moving a target for the 88's relatively low rate of fire, and while occasional hits were scored Soviet pilots apparently did not treat the 88 with the same respect as high-altitude Western heavy bomber crews. Similarly the attempts in Finland during summer '44 to augment the small numbers of 20/40mm AA in the field army by heavier 76mm guns drawn from homeland defence proved also relatively ineffective and few Il-2s were downed despite attempting different tactics with time-fuzed fragmentation, contact-fuzed, and shrapnel ammunition: the heavy guns simply lacked the reaction times to take advantage of the brief firing opportunities presented by the low-altitude Il-2 attacks. Single-barrel 20mm guns were also found somewhat inadequate due to limited firepower: one or two shells were often not enough to destroy the Il-2, and unless the Il-2 was attacking the gun itself, thus presenting effectively a stationary target, scoring more hits during a firing opportunity was rare. However, a single hit from a 40mm AA gun was usually enough to bring down an Il-2. Soviet anti-aircraft artillery also frequently mistook it for German aircraft, often with lethal consequences.

Posted Image

The armored tub, ranging from 5–12 mm (0.2-0.5 in) in thickness and enveloping the engine and the cockpit, could deflect all small arms fire and glancing blows from larger-caliber ammunition. There are reports of the armored windscreen surviving direct hits from 20 mm (0.79 in) rounds. Unfortunately, the rear gunners did not have the benefit of all-around armor protection, especially from the rear and to the sides and suffered about four times more casualties than the pilots. Added casualties resulted from the Soviet policy of not returning home with unused ammunition which typically resulted in repeated passes on the target.
Heavy losses to enemy fighters forced the addition of a rear gunner; early IL-2s were field modified by cutting a hole in the fuselage behind the cockpit for a gunner sitting on a canvas sling armed with a 12.7 mm UBT machine gun in an improvised mounting. The semi-turret gun mount allowed the machine gun to be fired at angles of up to 35° upwards, 35° to starboard and 15° to port. Tests showed that maximum speed decreased by between 10 and 20 km/h (6.2–12.4 mph) and that the two-seater was more difficult to handle. At the beginning of March 1942, a production two-seat Il-2 with the new gunner's cockpit began manufacturer tests. The second cockpit and armament increased all-up weight by 170 kg (374 lb) so the flaps were allowed to be deployed at an angle of 17° to avoid an overly long takeoff run. The new variant had a lengthened fuselage compartment with an extended canopy offering some protection from the elements. Unlike the well-armoured cockpit of the pilot compartment with steel plating up to 12 mm (0.47 in) thick behind, beneath and on both sides as well as up to 65mm thick glass sections, the rear gunner was provided with 6 mm (.23 in) thick armour, only effective against rifle-calibre rounds.


To improve performance, the Mikulin Design Bureau started work on an uprated AM-38 engine. The new engines produced 1,700 hp at takeoff and 1,500 hp at 750 meters. They gave an improved takeoff and low-altitude performance. On 30 October 1942, production Il-2s powered by AM38s were used on the Central front for the first time when they successfully attacked Smolensk airfield occupied by Germans. The Shturmovik rear guns proved to be effective against hostile fighters, and during the service trials alone, gunners shot down seven Bf 109s and repulsed many attacks. In January 1943 two-seat attack aircraft powered by uprated AM-38F engines (Forseerovannyy - uprated) began to arrive at front line units.


Nonetheless, the death rate among the air gunners remained exceptionally high and not until late models produced after 1944, did the 13 mm (.5 in) rear plate of the armour shell get moved rearwards into the (wooden) rear fuselage to allow a gunner to sit behind the fuel tank. The armour did not extend to the rear or below although side armour panels were riveted to the rear armour plate to protect the ammunition tank for the UBT machine gun, providing some measure of protection. The modifications including adding the rear gunner and gun had added weight behind the cg, resulting in "marginal" stability and handling characteristics that were "barely acceptable". This was the reason for the swept back outer wings in later Il-2s.


Air-to-air combat
Due to shortage of fighters, in 1941–1942, Il-2s were occasionally used as fighters. While outclassed by dedicated fighters like the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190, in dogfights, the Il-2 could take on other Luftwaffe aircraft with some success. German front line units equipped with the Henschel Hs 126 suffered most of all from the ravages of Il-2s. Il-2 pilots also often attacked close formations of Junkers Ju 87s, as the 7.92 mm machine guns of the Stukas were ineffective defensively against the heavily armoured Shturmoviks. In the winter of 1941–1942, Il-2s were used against Luftwaffe transport aircraft, and became the most dangerous opponent of the Junkers Ju-52/3m. Pilots of 33rd GvShAP were the most successful in these operations, but other successful units were those operating near Stalingrad. Their targets were not only Ju 52s but also Heinkel He 111 and Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor bombers, delivering supplies to the besieged German troops.
Il-2 over Berlin, 1945
Posted Image

While the Il-2 was a deadly air-to-ground weapon, and even a fairly effective interceptor against slow bombers and transport aircraft, heavy losses resulted from its vulnerability to fighter attack. Losses were very high, the highest of all types of Soviet aircraft. Sturmovik losses (including Il-10 type), in 1941-1945, were of 10,762 aircraft (533 in 1941, 1,676 in 1942, 3,515 in 1943, 3,347 in 1944 and 1,691 in 1945).The main defensive tactic was flying low and power down as the fighters closed in to let the fighter overshoot and fly into the IL-2's firing range.
Source:
http://en.wikipedia....i/Ilyushin_Il-2
http://www.world-war...Shturmovik.html
   Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik (Tiếng Nga: Ил-2 Штурмовик) là một máy bay tấn công mặt đất trong Chiến tranh thế giới thứ hai, được chế tạo bởi Liên bang Xô viết với số lượng rất lớn. Cùng với chiếc máy bay tiếp theo của nó Ilyushin Il-10, tổng cộng 36.163 chiếc đã được chế tạo, khiến nó trở thành mẫu thiết kế máy bay quân sự được chế tạo với số lượng lớn nhất thế giới trong lịch sử hàng không và đứng thứ hai trong số những máy bay được chế tạo sau Cessna 172 và Polikarpov Po-2.
Với các phi công lái Shturmovik, chiếc máy bay này được gọi đơn giản là "Ilyusha". Với các binh sĩ dưới mặt đất, nó được gọi là "Thằng gù," "Tăng bay", hay cái tên mang ý nghĩa nhất đề cao nhất "Bộ binh bay." Máy bay Il-2 có một vai trò quan trọng trên Mặt trận phía Đông, và trong quan điểm của Liên Xô đây là máy bay giữ vai trò quyết định lớn nhất trong lịch sử chiến tranh dưới mặt đất hiện đại. Josef Stalin đã dành cho Il-2 một sự quan tâm to lớn, và coi Il-2 là một vũ khí không thể thiếu của Hồng quân, khi một nhà máy bay sản xuất đặc biệt loại máy bay này đã chậm trễ giao các máy bay Il-2, Stalin đã gửi một thông điệp cho giám đốc nhà máy: "Chúng quan trọng với Hồng quân như không khí và bánh mì." [3] Theo các quảng cáo của Liên Xô thì thậm chí IL-2 "không hề bị đạn của địch làm thương tổn, lỗ thủng tự liền lại"

war_Partisan #17 Posted 07 September 2012 - 06:51 PM

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Chiếc Il-2 đã đóng vai trò quyết định tại Mặt trận phía Đông, và theo quan điểm Xô viết đây là chiếc máy bay có vai trò quyết định nhất trong lịch sử chiến tranh trên bộ hiện đại. Có thể bay cả ngày lẫn đêm, chúng có khả năng phá hủy lớp vỏ giáp dày của các loại tăng Panther và Tiger I, và thỉnh thoảng bắn hạ cả những chiếc Bf 109 khi các phi công Đức bất cẩn lúc tấn công chúng. Josef Stalin đã dành cho Il-2 lời chúc tụng nồng nhiệt nhất theo cách của ông: khi một nhà máy sản xuất chậm tiến độ giao hàng so với các nhà máy khác, Stalin đã gửi bức điện sau tới vị giám đốc: "Chúng quan trọng với Hồng quân cũng như không khí và bánh mì." [5]
Chiếc Il-2 lần đầu tiên tham chiến trong 4th ShAP (Trung đoàn Tấn công Mặt đất) trên Sông Berezina vài ngày sau khi cuộc xâm lược của Phát xít Đức bắt đầu. Vì chiếc máy bay quá mới các phi công còn chưa được huấn luyện gì về các đặc tính bay cũng như các chiến thuật chiến đấu, và bộ phận hậu cần dưới mặt đất cũng chưa được đào tạo về bảo dưỡng và tái nạp vũ khí. Đáng ngạc nhiên, tới ngày 10 tháng 7 số lượng Il-2 của 4th ShAP chỉ còn 10 chiếc từ tổng số 65 chiếc trước đó.[6]
Những chiến thuật đã thay đổi khi phi công Xô viết biết cách sử dụng những sức mạnh của Il-2. Thay vì tiếp cận thẳng ở tầm thấp khoảng 50 mét, mục tiêu thường được đặt phía tay trái phi công và một vòng quay bổ nhào hẹp 30 độ sẽ là thích hợp, sử dụng đội hình tấn công từ bốn tới mười hai máy bay một lúc. Dù loại rocket RS-82 của Il-2 có thể phá hủy vỏ giáp của các loại xe bọc thép chỉ bằng một phát bắn, nhưng tỷ lệ trúng đích thấp tới mức các phi công Il-2 chủ yếu phải sử dụng súng trong chiến đấu.[7]

Các phi công của Il-2 tại Belarus mùa hè năm 1944
Rất khó xác định khả năng thực của Il-2 nhờ những bằng chứng tài liệu. W. Liss trong Aircraft profile 88: Ilyushin Il-2 đề cập tới một trận chiến trong Trận Kursk ngày 7 tháng 7 năm 1943, trong đó 70 chiếc xe tăng Đức thuộc Sư đoàn Panzer số 9 đã bị những chiếc Ilyushin Il-2 tiêu diệt chỉ trong 20 phút.[8] Trong một bản báo cáo khác về tác chiến ngày hôm đó, một quân nhân Xô viết đã ghi chú rằng
Các lực lượng mặt đất đánh giá rất cao khả năng của không quân trên chiến trường. Một số cuộc tấn công của kẻ địch đã bị cản trở nhờ những chiến dịch không quân của chúng ta. Vì thế vào ngày 7 tháng 7 những cuộc tấn công bằng xe tăng vào vùng Kashara (Quân đoàn số 13) đã bị bẻ gãy. Tại đây những chiếc máy bay tấn công của chúng ta đã tiến hành ba đợt tấn công mạnh mẽ theo các nhóm mỗi nhóm 20-30 chiếc, phá hủy và làm tê liệt 34 xe tăng. Kẻ địch buộc phải tạm ngừng các cuộc tấn công tiếp theo, rút lui bảo toàn lực lượng về phía bắc Kashara.[9]
Nhờ lớp vỏ giáp bảo vệ, một chiếc Il-2 có thể chịu được nhiều phát đạn và đã chứng tỏ là một mục tiêu khó chịu đối với cả hỏa lực mặt đất và trên không. Một số phi công thích ngắm xuống từ buồng lái và gốc cánh trong những cuộc tấn công với đội hình Il-2 ở độ cao tốc độ thấp [10]. Nhiều phi công hàng đầu của Không quân Đức (Luftwaffe) tuyên bố rằng sẽ dễ dàng tiêu diệt Il-2 hơn khi vọt lên từ phía sau, ngoài tầm quan sát của pháo thủ đuôi, và ngắm bắn vào bộ phận bình dầu làm nguội thò ra ngoài của nó. Tính chính xác của tuyên bố này chưa được các phi công Il-2 xác nhận trong những cuộc phỏng vấn thời hậu chiến bởi Il-2 thường bay thấp rất gần mặt đất (chiều cao bay dưới 50 m (160 ft) là thông thường) và bộ phận tản nhiệt chỉ nhô ra 4 in (10 cm) khỏi bề mặt máy bay. Một nguy cơ chính của Il-2 là hỏa lực mặt đất Đức. Trong những cuộc phỏng vấn thời hậu chiến, các phi công Il-2 đã nói rằng pháo 20mm và 30mm chính là mối lo lớn nhất của họ. Tuy loại pháo 88mm có sức công phá lớn, nhưng những chiếc Il-2 là mục tiêu bay với vận tốc lớn so với tỷ lệ bắn khá chậm của loại pháo này và chỉ thỉnh thoảng một vài chiếc bị bắn hạ, các phi công Xô viết rõ ràng không đề cao loại pháo "88" như những phi công lái máy bay ném bom Đồng minh.

Pháo NS-37 của Il-2, Moscow, tháng 3 1943
Lớp giáp của Il-2 dày từ 5 đến 12 mm (0.2 to 0.5 in) và bọc kín động cơ cùng buồng lái có khả năng chống lại các loại đạn nhỏ và những vết bắn sượt của đạn súng cỡ lớn hơn. Đã có những báo cáo về việc lớp giáp vẫn đứng vững sau khi bị bắn trực tiếp bởi đạn 20mm. Không may thay, pháo thủ phía sau không được bảo vệ bởi lớp giáp và phải chịu tỷ lệ thương vong cao gấp bốn lần phi công. Số thương vong càng tăng thêm bởi chính sách của Xô viết không quay trở về với vũ khí thừa khiến máy bay phải bay nhiều vòng trên mục tiêu để xả hết đạn[cần dẫn nguồn]. Quân đội Xô việt thường buộc máy bay phải lượn thêm nhiều vòng trên mục tiêu sau khi đã bắn hết đạn để quan sát chất lượng cuộc bắn phá của những chiếc Il-2 trên trận địa Đức, quân Đức đặt tên cho loại máy bay này là Fleischer (Đồ tể). Cái tên nổi tiếng "Tăng bay" và "Der Schwarze Tod" ("Tử thần đen") không phải do các binh sĩ đặt. Tên tăng bay do nhà thiết kế đặt trong giai đoạn thiết kế đầu tiên. Tên thứ hai do cơ quan tuyên truyền Xô viết. Các phi công Đức gọi chúng là Eiserner Gustav (Gustav Sắt) hay Zementbomber (Máy bay ném bom bê tông) – cả hai đều do khả năng thao diễn kém của loại máy bay này[11]. Tên hiệu Phần Lan Maatalouskone ("Máy nông nghiệp" hay "máy thu hoạch") xuất phát từ kiểu tấn công tầm thấp của nó[12]
Tuy Il-2 đã chứng tỏ là một loại vũ khí không đối đất uy lực, nhưng nó cũng phải chịu nhiều thiệt hại do khả năng thao diễn kém trước các máy bay chiến đấu của địch, vì thế, vào tháng 2 năm 1942, mẫu thiết kế hai chỗ ngồi được khôi phục. Chiếc IL-2M với một pháo thủ phía sau dưới vòm buồng lái kéo dài bắt đấu đi vào hoạt động tháng 9 năm 1942 và tất cả những chiếc một chỗ ngồi đều được sửa đổi theo phiên bản này. Những thay đổi sau này gồm pháo 20-mm thành 23-mm tới 37-mm, cải tiến khí động học, sử dụng tấm cánh bên ngoài bằng gỗ thay cho kim loại để tăng hiệu quả sử dụng nhiên liệu. Năm 1943, chiếc IL-2 Kiểu 3hayr Il-2m3 xuất hiện với kiểu cánh được thiết kế lại nghiêng chéo phía sau 15 độ. Tính năng thao diễn và điều khiển tăng lên nhiều và đây đã trở thành phiên bản thường thấy nhất của Il-2. Một biến thể sử dụng động cơ xuyên tâm của Il-2 với động cơ Shvetsov ASh-82 đã được đệ trình năm 1942 nhằm giải quyết tình trạng thiếu động cơ Mikulin. Tuy nhiên, ASh-82 cũng được dùng trên loại máy bay Lavochkin La-5 mới và sử dụng được tất cả các loại động cơ của phòng thiết kế Lavochkin. Máy bay tấn công mặt đất sử dụng động cơ xuyên tâm Sukhoi Su-2 đã được chế tạo với số lượng nhỏ, nhưng nói chung bị coi là không thích hợp và không đủ khả năng thao diễn cũng như không được bảo vệ tốt. Pháo phòng không Xô viết thường nhầm chiếc máy bay này với máy bay Đức, và thường dẫn tới hậu quả nghiêm trọng.
Sau chiến tranh Il-2 hoạt động tại nhiều quốc gia Đông Âu, và cuối cùng hầu hết những chiếc Il-2/10 đều bị loại bỏ với sự xuất hiện của những chiếc phản lực quân sự. Chỉ vài chiếc còn tồn tại tới ngày nay, gồm những chiếc phục chế từ những chiếc đã lao xuống đất để trưng bày trong bảo tàng. Những năm gần đây, nhiều xác Il-2 đã được phát hiện và lấy lên từ Hồ Balaton, một hồ lớn và nông tại Hungary, gần địa điểm của một trận đấu tăng lớn trong Thế chiến II. :Smile_great::Smile_great::Smile_great::Smile_great::Smile_great:

war_Partisan #18 Posted 07 September 2012 - 06:52 PM

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Nhận xét của các phi công

Buồng lái Il-2M. Bảo tàng Hàng không Belgrade, Serbia
Valentin Grigoryevich Averyanov (phi công, Anh hùng Liên Xô):
“ Chiếc máy bay này tốt và cần thiết cho cuộc chiến. Mặc dù không phải tất cả các phi công đều thích nó, nhưng quả thật, nó là một thứ vũ khí tin cậy, một chiếc "xe tăng bay" tuyệt vời ... Đúng là ở độ cao thấp, nó không thể bổ nhào nhưng lại ném bom rất hiệu quả. Chúng tôi sử dụng từ 400 đến 600 kg bom treo dưới cánh. Tuy không thể nhìn trực diện mục tiêu ném bom trên mặt đất nhưng tôi nghĩ rằng không cần thiết phải làm vậy. Vậy cần làm gì? Có một bí quyết! Do bay thấp nên cần tính toán, căn mục tiêu chính xác. Vũ khí chính xác nhất của máy bay là một khẩu pháo 23 mm. Sau này, chúng tôi đã thay bằng một khẩo pháo NA-37mm. Mỗi khi bạn khai hỏa, máy bay như dừng lại - một hiệu ứng phản lực rất mạnh mẽ của vũ khí.

exerminator2000 #19 Posted 17 September 2012 - 10:22 PM

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i just saw the only flying il2 in existence fly at the flying heritage collection at paine field in everett washington

Thormenter #20 Posted 23 September 2012 - 09:52 AM

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This little beauty deserves some extra images on this forum
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